Marketing and Management of Innovations

ISSN (print) – 2218-4511 

ISSN (online) – 2227-6718

Registered in the Media Registrants-Register

Identifier in the register: R30-01179 Decision dated August 31, 2023, No. 759

The language of publication is English. 

Issued 4 times a year (March, June, September, December) since 2010

Business Model: Golden Open Access | APC Policy

Editor-in-Chieff             View Editorial Board

Oleksii Lyulyov

Sumy State University | Ukraine

The Effect of the Internal Customer (Employee) on the External Customer in Citizenship Behaviour: A Mediated Model Through Customer Support Perception

Yagmur Kerse1 , Gokhan Kerse1,*
  1. Bandirma Onyedi Eylul University, Turkey

    * Corresponding author

Received: 04 May 2023

Revised: 30 August 2023

Accepted: 01 September 2023


Organizational citizenship behaviour, which refers to employees exhibiting extra-role behaviours without expecting any tangible reward, can also be observed in customers. Similar to employees, customers can also engage in voluntary behaviours that are beneficial to the business (customer citizenship behaviour). These behaviours exhibited by both employees and customers areimportant for businesses to achieve their goals and survive. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to determine the direct and indirect effects of employees’ citizenship behaviours on customers’ citizenship behaviours. The study formulated hypotheses based on social exchange theory, examining organizational citizenship behaviour’s direct effect on customer citizenship behaviour as well as its indirect effect on customer support perception. To test these hypotheses, data were collected from 302 customers of clothing stores in Turkey. The data were analysed using SPSS, AMOS, and Process MACRO (for SPSS and SAS) programs. The data were subjected to various procedures. Specifically, frequency analysis, normality test analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability analysis were conducted. In addition, detection analyses for method-related problems (multicollinearity and common method bias), correlation analysis, and regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that the data met the assumption of a normal distribution, the scales used were reliable and valid, and there was no evidence of multicollinearity or common method bias. Controlling for demographic variables, the correlation analysis revealed positive relationships between perception of organizational citizenship behaviour, customer citizenship behaviour and customer support perception. The regression analysis conducted to test the hypotheses revealed that organizational citizenship behaviour has a positive effect on customer citizenship behaviour. Moreover, the results indicated that customer support perception plays a mediating role in this effect. In other words, organizational citizenship behaviour affected customer citizenship behaviour both directly and indirectly (through customer support perception). These findings indicate that employees who are “good soldiers” influence customers to be “good soldiers” as well. Therefore, the study proved the importance of the internal customer (employees) for businesses in influencing the behaviour of external customers. Implications were made based on the findings in the study.

Keyword: consumer behaviour; customer citizenship behaviour; organizational citizenship behaviour; support perception; clothing stores.

How to Cite: Kerse, Y., & Kerse, G. (2023). The Effect of the Internal Customer (Employee) on the External Customer in Citizenship Behaviour: A Mediated Model Through Customer Support Perception. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 14(3), 916.

Abstract Views

PDF Downloads


Bettencourt, L. A. (1997). Customer voluntary performance: Customers as partners in service delivery. Journal of retailing, 73(3), 383-406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. Wiley.

Bove, L. L., Pervan, S. J., Beatty, S. E., & Shiu, E. (2009). Service worker role in encouraging customer organizational citizenship behaviours. Journal of business research62(7), 698-705. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Chan, K. W., Gong, T., Zhang, R., & Zhou, M. (2017). Do employee citizenship behaviours lead to customer citizenship behaviours? The roles of dual identification and service climate. Journal of Service Research20(3), 259-274. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Choi, L., Lawry, C. A., & Kim, M. (2019). Contextualizing customer organizational citizenship behaviours: The changing nature of value cocreation and customer satisfaction across service settings. Psychology & Marketing36(5), 455-472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Cintamür, İ. G. (2023). Linking customer justice perception, customer support perception, and customer citizenship behaviour to corporate reputation: evidence from the airline industry. Corporate Reputation Review26(2), 111-132. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Cropanzano, R., & Mitchell, M. S. (2005). Social exchange theory: An interdisciplinary review. Journal of management31(6), 874-900. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Celik, M., & TurunC, O. (2010). Qualitative research on the negative impacts of organizational citizenship behaviour. Kara Harp Okulu Bilim Dergisi, 20(1), 1-1. [Google Scholar]

George, D., & Mallery, P. (2019). IBM SPSS statistics 26 step by step: A simple guide and reference. Routledge. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gong, T., & Yi, Y. (2021). A review of customer citizenship behaviours in the service context. The Service Industries Journal41(3-4), 169-199. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Groth, M. (2005). Customers as good soldiers: Examining citizenship behaviours in internet service deliveries. Journal of management31(1), 7-27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gruen, T. W. (1995). The outcome set of relationship marketing in consumer markets. International Business Review4(4), 447-469. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Guo, G., & Zhou, X. (2013). Research on organizational citizenship behaviour, trust and customer citizenship behaviour.International Journal of Business and Management, 8(16), 86-90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Hair Jr, J., Hair Jr, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). A primer on partial least squares structural equation modelling (PLS-SEM). Sage publications. [Google Scholar]

Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. [Google Scholar]

Im, J., & Qu, H. (2017). Drivers and resources of customer cocreation: A scenario-based case in the restaurant industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management64, 31-40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kim, M., & Jang, J. (2022). The impact of employees’ perceived customer citizenship behaviours on organizational citizenship behaviours: the mediating roles of employee customer-orientation attitude. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 1-26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]]

LePine, J. A., Erez, A., & Johnson, D. E. (2002). The nature and dimensionality of organizational citizenship behaviour: a critical review and meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology87(1), 52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Ma, E., Qu, H., Wilson, M., & Eastman, K. (2013). Modelling OCB for hotels: Don’t forget the customers. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly54(3), 308-317. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Marcoulides, K. M., & Raykov, T. (2019). Evaluation of variance inflation factors in regression models using latent variable modelling methods. Educational and psychological measurement79(5), 874-882. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Nielsen, T. M., Hrivnak, G. A., & Shaw, M. (2009). Organizational citizenship behaviour and performance: A meta-analysis of group-level research. Small Group Research40(5), 555-577. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behaviour: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington: Lexington Books. [CrossRef]

Organ, D. W. (2018). Organizational citizenship behaviour: Recent trends and developments. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behaviour80, 295-306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Podsakoff, N. P., Whiting, S. W., Podsakoff, P. M., & Blume, B. D. (2009). Individual-and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviours: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied Psychology94(1), 122-141. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Paine, J. B., & Bachrach, D. G. (2000). Organizational citizenship behaviours: A critical review of the theoretical and empirical literature and suggestions for future research. Journal of management26(3), 513-563.[Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Seman, A. A., Ahmed, H., Refera, M. K., Amde, S. J., Thomran, M., & Ahmed, Y. A. (2022). Assessing the effect of work-life balance initiatives on organizational citizenship behaviour. Marketing i menedžment innovacij13(4), 207-217. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Tavares, F.O., Pacheco, L.D., & Almeida, L.G. (2019). Preferences in university residences: A confirmatory study. African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 8(2), 1-10. [Google Scholar]

Vasudevan, H., & Aslan, I. (2022). Developing organizational citizenship behaviour: Organizational climate and leader-member exchange effects. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 1, 94-107 [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Yi, Y., Nataraajan, R., & Gong, T. (2011). Customer participation and citizenship behavioural influences on employee performance, satisfaction, commitment, and turnover intention. Journal of Business Research64(1), 87-95.

Yi, Y., & Gong, T. (2008). The effects of customer justice perception and affect on customer citizenship behavior and customer dysfunctional behavior. Industrial Marketing Management37, 767-783. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

View articles in other formats



Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s).

Published by Sumy State University