Marketing and Management of Innovations

ISSN (print) – 2218-4511 

ISSN (online) – 2227-6718

Registered in the Media Registrants-Register

Identifier in the register: R30-01179 Decision dated August 31, 2023, No. 759

The language of publication is English. 

Issued 4 times a year (March, June, September, December) since 2010

Business Model: Golden Open Access | APC Policy

Editor-in-Chieff             View Editorial Board

Oleksii Lyulyov

Sumy State University | Ukraine

Factors Affecting the Consumer Behaviour of Gluten Sensitive Consumers – A Pilot Study

Tibor Zsigmond 1,*  , Lilla Feher 1 , Renata Machova 1 , Szilard Kovacs 2

  1. J. Selye University, Slovakia
  2. Eotvos Jozsef College, Hungary

     * Corresponding author

Received: 15 January 2023

Revised: 14 November 2023

Accepted: 10 December 2023


The aim of this research was to assess the consumption habits of gluten sensitive individuals and to determine the factors affecting them. Owing to the development of medicine and new technologies, gluten sensitivity has been revealed in an increasing number ofcases. In addition, changes in modern lifestyles, as well as associated harmful consumption habits and changes in the health environment, have increased the incidence of gluten sensitivity. In terms of these facts, it has become extremely important to examine the consumer habits of this segment. With the help of this, it is possible to learn about the influence of the disease on consumers. The present research was completed on the basis of 862 questionnaires received in the autumn of 2022; the respondents (without exception) were individuals suffering from gluten sensitivity from Slovakia and Hungary. Factor analysis was performed to identify the main factors affecting consumption. Based on the results of the present research people affected by the disease do not make decisions based on one factor alone during their purchases. The study found that the factors influencing the consumption habits of gluten-sensitive individuals can be classified into four groups: “common”, “conscious”, “healthy lifestyle” and “price”. There are additional influencing elements within these groups. Based on the results, a revision and adjustment of tools influencing the consumption of gluten-free products should be performed. Factors affecting the consumer behaviour of gluten-sensitive consumers should be grouped (“Common”, ”Conscious”, ”Healthy lifestyle” and ”Price”). The analysis showed that the majority of gluten-sensitive individuals strictly adhere to the needed diet, but it is not important for them where they obtain the individual foods or the ingredients for their preparation. The present research contributes to the understanding of the lifestyle of gluten-sensitive consumers and can provide a suitable basis for further research.

Keywords: consumer behaviour; gluten-sensitive consumers; celiac disease; gluten-free products; affecting factors.

How to Cite: Zsigmond, T., Feher, L., Machova, R., & Kovacs, Sz. (2023). Factors Affecting the Consumer Behaviour of Gluten Sensitive Consumers – A Pilot Study. Marketing and Management of Innovations, 14(4), 211–222.

Abstract Views

PDF Downloads


Alhussain, M. H. (2018). Awareness of Celiac Disease among the General Public in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Celiac Disease, 9(2), 71-76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Anderson, R. P. (2022). Diagnosis of coeliac disease: a perspective on current and future approaches. Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 56(1), 18-S37. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Barcziova, A., & Balintova, M. (2021). Highly influential microinfluencers. In L. Mura (ed.), Young scientist 2021 (pp. 6-15). Komarno, J. Selye University. [Google Scholar]

Bardella, M. T., Fredella, C., Saladino, V., Trovato, C., Cesena, B. M., Quatrini, M., & Prampolini, L. (2005). Gluten intolerance: Gender- and age-related differences in symptoms. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 40(1), 15-19. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Bauer, A., Beracs, J., & Gati, M. (2019). Changes of Research in Marketing – Retrospective Analysis Based on Publications in an Academic Journal. Vezetestudomany/Budapest Management Review, 50(12), 32-49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Capacci, S., Leucci, A. C., & Mazzocchi, M. (2018). There is no such thing as a (gluten-) free lunch: Higher food prices and the cost for coeliac consumers. Economics & Human Biology, 30, 84-91. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Codex Alimentarius Commission. (2007). Draft Revised Codex Standard for Foods for Special Dietary use for Persons Intolerant to Gluten. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO.

Csiszarik-Kocsir, A., Garai Fodor, M., & Varga, J. (2021). What has Become Important during the Pandemic? ‒ Reassessing Preferences and Purchasing Habits as an Aftermath of the Coronavirus Epidemic through the Eyes of Different Generations. Acta Polytechnica Hungarica, 18(11), 49-74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

De Iulio, S., & Kovacs, S. (2022). Food Information, Communication and Education: Eating Knowledge. London: Bloomsbury Publishing. [Google Scholar]

Di Giulio, M., Maina, M.A., Mureithi, K., Canepa, L., & Gai, S. (2022). The Relationship between Marketing and Consumer Choices. In K. Ogunyemi, & Burgal, V. (eds.), Products for Conscious Consumers, (pp. 67-87). Bingley, Emerald Publishing Limited. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Dicke, W. K. (1950). Celiac disease: a study on the adverse effect of some cereals on the celiac sufferer (Ph.D. thesis), Utrecht, NL: University of Utrecht.

Falcomer, A. L., Santos Araújo, L., Farage, P., Santos Monteiro, J., Yoshio Nakano, E., & Puppin Zandonadi, R. (2020). Gluten contamination in food services and industry: A systematic review. Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 60(3), 479-493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gaesser, G. A., & Angadi, S. S. (2015). Navigating the gluten-free boom. Journal of the American Academy of PAs, 28(8), 1-7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Galli, G., Amici, G., Conti, L., Lahner, E., Annibale, B., & Carabotti, M. (2022). Sex–Gender Differences in Adult Coeliac Disease at Diagnosis and Gluten-Free-Diet Follow-Up. Nutrients, 14(15), 3192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gorgitano, M. T., & Sodano, V. (2019). Gluten-free products: From dietary necessity to premium price extraction tool. Nutrients, 11(9), 1997. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Graa, A., & Abdelhak, S. (2020). The determinants of electronic word of mouth´ influence in Algerian consumer choice: The case of restaurant industry. Acta Oeconomica Universitatis Selye, 9(2), 35-47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Guennouni, M., Admou, B., Bourrhouat, A., Zogaam, L. G., Elmoumou, L., & Hilali, A. (2022). Gluten contamination in labelled gluten-free, naturally gluten-free and meals in food services in low-, middle-and high-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Nutrition, 127(10):1528-1542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Gyurian, N., & Šeben, Z. (2012). Assessment of the effects of corporate tax on agricultural enterprises in the district of Nove Zamky. In Z. Zeman, Zs. Szeles (eds.). The economy of the future, the investment of the future (pp. 34-39). Győr, Szent Istvan University.

Haas, J. V. (1924). The Value of the Banana in the Treatment of Celiac Disease. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 28(4), 421-437.

Hameed, S., & Sondhi, V. (2022). Management of Celiac Disease: The Role of Significant Others. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, 10(3), 289-295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Hofmeister-Toth, A. (2014). Basics of consumer behavior. Budapest, Akademiai Kiado.

Ivarsson, A., Persson, L. A., Nyström, L., & Hernell, O. (2003). The Swedish coeliac disease epidemic with a prevailing twofold higher risk in girls compared to boys may reflect gender specific risk factors. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 677-684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kabatova, J. (2014). Epidemiology of celiac disease in Slovakia: Life conditions of celiac disease patients in Slovakia. International Journal of Celiac Disease, 2(2), 38-39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Kemeny, I., Simon, J., Berezvai, Z., & Kun, Z. (2021). Quantitative methods of marketing research – Help for using the SPSS program. Budapest, Corvinus University of Budapest. [Google Scholar]

Kotler, P., & Keller, K. (2020). Marketing for Managers. Sydney, Pearson Education Australia.

Lackova, A. (2016). Problems related to the assortment of foods intended for celiacs. Studia Commercialia Bratislavensia, 34(9), 189-201. [Google Scholar]

Lee, A. R., Wolf, R. L., Lebwohl, B., Ciaccio, E. J., & Green, P. H. (2019). Persistent economic burden of the gluten free diet. Nutrients, 11(2), 399. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lee, H. J., Anderson, Z., & Ryu, D. (2014). Gluten contamination in foods labelled as “gluten free” in the United States. Journal of food protection, 77(10), 1830-1833. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Lenart, I., Lakner, Z., Kovacs, L., & Kasza, G. (2022). Consumers across cultures: a comparative study about consumers’ role in food safety-related academic literature. British Food Journal, 124(12), 4610-4625. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Luckose, F., Iyer, S., Ballamoole, K. K., & Sheshappa, M. B. (2022). Food Allergies and Toxicity. In: Chauhan, O.P. (eds.). Advances in Food Chemistry. Singapore, Springer. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Mohammadi, M., Zoghi, A., & Mirmahdi, R. S. (2022). Impact of enzymes in development of gluten‐free cereal‐based products. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 46(5), e15295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Molnar, T. (2015). Emprikus területi kutatasok. Budapest, Akademiai Kiado.

Mordor Intelligence (2022). Europe Gluten-Free Food and Beverages Market – Growth, Trends, Covid-19 Impact, and Forecasts (2023-2028). [Link]

Musova, Z., Musa, H., & Matiova, V. (2021). Environmentally responsible behaviour of consumers: Evidence from Slovakia. Economics and Sociology, 14(1), 178-198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Nagyova, Ľ., Košiciarova, I., Rybanska, J., & Holiencinova, M. (2016). Celiac Disease: The Situation on the Slovak Market. Potravinarstvo, 10(1), 323–331. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Penzes, I. R., & Polya, E. (2019). The Interrelationship between the Factors Influencing Retail Selection Behavior and FMCG Market Network. Economica, 10(2), 77-82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Petrulakova, M., & Valik, L. (2015). Food allergy and intolerance. Acta Chimica Slovaca, 8(1), 44-51. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Pinter, J. & Rappai, G. (2007). Statisztika. [Statistics]. Pecs, University of Pecs.

Przybylska, A., Chrustek, A., Sperkowska, B., Koba, M., & Olszewska-Słonina, D. (2022). Safety Assessment of Foods and Drinks Consumed by People on a Gluten-Free Diet. Molecules, 27(19), 6165. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Rimarova, K., Dorko, E., Diabelkova, J., Sulinova, Z., Makovický, P., Bakova, J., Uhrin, T., Jenca, A., Jencova, J., Petrašova, A., Jenca, A. Jr., & Jenca, J. (2018). Compliance with gluten-free diet in a selected group of celiac children in the Slovak Republic. Central European Journal of Public Health, 26(Supplement), S19-S24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Rokicki, T., Jadczak, R., Kucharski, A., Borawski, P., Bełdycka-Borawska, A., Szeberenyi, A., & Perkowska, A. (2022). Changes in Energy Consumption and Energy Intensity in EU Countries as a Result of the COVID-19 Pandemic by Sector and Area Economy. Energies, 15(17), 6243. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Rybaczewska, M., Kłopocka, A. M., Kuszewski, T., & Sułkowski, L. (2021). Consumers’ response to pandemic threat: Purchase behaviour in convenience stores. Evidence from British panel data. Journal of International Studies, 14(4), 251- 269. [Google Scholar]

Sahin, Y. (2021). Celiac disease in children: a review of the literature. World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics, 10(4), 53-71. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Samoliuk, N., Bilan, Y., Mishchuk, H., & Mishchuk, V. (2022). Employer brand: key values influencing the intention to join a company. Management & Marketing. Challenges for the Knowledge Society, 17(1), 61-72. [CrossRef]

Schmidt, B., Brakus, J. J., & Biraglia, A. (2022). Consumption Ideology. Journal of Consumer Research, 45(1), 74-95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Shanker, D. (2016). You Can Eat Gluten Again, America. Bloomberg. [Link]

Siminiuc, R., & Turcanu, D. (2022). Food security of people with celiac disease in the Republic of Moldova through prism of public policies. Frontiers in Public Health, 10, 961827. [GoogleScholar] [CrossRef]

Stojanovic, B., Jankovic, S., Đonovic, N., Radlovic, V., Jovanovic, S., & Vuletic, B. (2021). Historical development of the understanding of coeliac disease. Vojnosanitetski pregled, 78(3), 370-375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Sudaryanto, S., Courvisanos, J., Dewi, I. R., Rusdiyanto, R., & Yuaris, J. R. (2022). Determinants of purchase intention during COVID-19: A case study of skincare products in East Java. Innovative Marketing18(1), 181-194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Szeberenyi, A. (2017). Environmentally conscious lifestyle analysis among high school and university students in a Hungarian rural town of the Heves County. Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development, 6(2), 74-78. [Google Scholar][CrossRef]

Taetzsch, A., Das, S. K., Brown, C., Krauss, A., Silver, R. E., & Roberts, S. B. (2018). Are gluten-free diets more nutritious? An evaluation of self-selected and recommended gluten-free and gluten-containing dietary patterns. Nutrients, 10(12), 1881. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Tisza, A. (2019). A gluten-free life for 80 billion forints a year. Trademagazin. [Link]

Tomcík, M., & Rosenlacher, P. (2018). Number of advertisements per day and their relevance to consumers. Acta Oeconomica Universitatis Selye, 7(2), 162-174. [Google Scholar]

van Berge-Henegouwen, G. P., & Mulder, C. J. (1993). Pioneer in the gluten free diet: Willem-Karel Dicke 1905-1962, over 50 years of gluten free diet. Gut, 34(11), 1473-1475. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

van Noy, D. (2023). Living Gluten-Free for Dummies. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons. [Google Scholar]

Virk, A. R., Kaur, M., Thakur, P., Chauhan, D., Rizvi, Q. U. E. H., Jan, S., & Kumar, K. (2019). Development and Nutritional Evaluation of Multigrain Gluten Free Cookies and Pasta Products. Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science Journal, 7(3), 842-853. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Wieser, H., Segura, V., Ruiz-Carnicer, A., Sousa, C., & Comino, I. (2021). Food safety and cross-contamination of gluten-free products: A narrative review. Nutrients, 13(7), 2244. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

Zis, P., Sarrigiannis, P., Rao, D., & Hadjivassiliou, M. (2018). Quality of Life in Patients with Gluten Neuropathy: A Case‒Controlled Study. Nutrients, 10(6), 662. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]


View articles in other formats



Copyright (c) 2023 The Author(s).

Published by Sumy State University